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palladium metal research

palladium (Pd) other research
Research involving palladium not otherwise catagorized is listed below. Original article abstracts with the url to complete article:

Title: Superconducting bolometer array with SQUID readout for submillimeter wavelength detection
Author(s): T May, V Zakosarenko, R Boucher, E Kreysa and H-G Meyer
Publication date: December 2003 Volume: 16 Start page: 1430
Publication: Superconductor Science and Technology

Abstract: We have tested a fully microfabricated superconducting bolometer array for astrophysical observations at submillimetre wavelengths. The system is cooled by a 3He sorption refrigerator operating in a pumped 4He cryostat. The transition edge bolometer uses a bilayer of molybdenum and a gold–palladium alloy with a transition temperature of around 500 mK as the thermometer. The bolometer is voltage biased, and the current is measured by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) ammeter.

Title: Optical Constants of Palladium Phthalocyanine Derivative Thin Films
Author(s): Wu Yi-Qun, Gu Dong-Hong, Gan Fu-Xi, Wang Jun-Dong and Chen Nai-Sheng
Publication date: November 2002 Volume: 19 Start page: 1700
Publication: Chinese Physics Letters

Abstract: Ellipsometric parameters of a series of spin-coated thin films of palladium phthalocyanine derivatives with bromine and tetraalkoxyl substitutes (PdPc(OC 8H 17) 4Br m , m = 0,2,3,4) are determined from a rotating analyser-polarizer type of scanning ellipsometer. The optical, dielectric constants and absorption coefficients of the films in the 500-800 nm wavelength region are reported. The results show that refractive index N ( N = n - k ), dielectric constant ϵ (ϵ = ϵ 1-ϵ 2) and absorption coefficient α in the region 500-800 nm are influenced by bromine atom substituted on the conjugated phthalocyanine ring regularly. It is found that there is approximately a linear relationship between the resonance absorption wavelengths of the films and the number of bromine atoms substituted on the phthalocyanine ring.

Title: Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of LaTMg and CeTMg (T = Pd, Pt, Au)
Author(s): B J Gibson, A Das, R K Kremer, R-D Hoffmann and R Pöttgen
Publication date: 27 May 2002 Volume: 14 Start page: 5173
Publication: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter

Abstract: The title compounds were prepared from the elements by reactions in sealed tantalum tubes in a water-cooled sample chamber of a high-frequency furnace. They crystallize with the ZrNiAl-type structure, space group P &bar6;2 m . The structures of the cerium compounds were refined from single-crystal x-ray diffraction data: a = 767.3(1) pm, c = 410.37(4) pm, wR 2 = 0.0324, 521 F 2 -values for CePdMg; a = 755.02(7) pm, c = 413.82(4) pm, wR 2 = 0.0393, 514 F 2 -values for CePtMg; and a = 774.1(3) pm, c = 421.6(1) pm, wR 2 = 0.0355, 395 F 2 -values for CeAuMg, with 14 variables for each refinement. The palladium compound shows a small homogeneity range: CePd 1+ x Mg 1- x . The structures contain two crystallographically different transition metal sites T1 and T2 which are located in tri-capped trigonal prisms: [T1 Mg 6Ce 3] and [T2 Ce 6Mg 3]. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements reveal long-range magnetic ordering at 2.1(2) K for CePdMg, 3.6(2) K for CePtMg, and 2.0(2) K for CeAuMg. Curie-Weiss behaviour at higher temperatures shows that the cerium ions are in the 3+ oxidation state. The isotypic LaTMg compounds are Pauli paramagnetic down to lowest temperatures ( T = 0.3 K). All the compounds, RETMg (RE = La, Ce; T = Pd, Pt, Au) show metallic behaviour.

Title: Excimer laser-induced formation of metallic microstructures by electroless copper plating
Author(s): H Yang and C-T Pan
Publication date: March 2002 Volume: 12 Start page: 157
Publication: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering

Abstract: Micro-patterns created by the excimer laser and activated by reactants for electroless copper plating are described in this paper. The generated micro-patterns are transformed into copper patterns on the substrate and copper microstructures are formed. This method simplifies the manufacturing process of making circuits on boards compared with the conventional lithography process of forming copper patterns on the substrate. Micro-patterns generated by the excimer laser cause changes of surface electric properties and activation selectively. A chemical reaction through these activated areas may deposit metal, such as copper. The KrF excimer laser not only provides simple and fast machining patterns, but also uses its high-energy density to drill holes and circuits directly. Palladium ions are added as mediators in the electroless plating solution to enable a continuous electroless copper deposition. According to the experiment of excimer laser-assisted electroless copper plating, the procedures of pretreatment and post-cleaning are the key factors that resulted in excellent selective plating. The samples were pretreated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and post-cleaned by acetone and diluted nitric acid resulting in distinct micro-patterns. The deposition area is confined to the excimer laser-ablated portion resulting in good selective plating.

Title: MD calculations of the spatial distribution of nuclear-stimulated desorption
Author(s): Y Ashkenazy and I Kelson
Publication date: March 1999 Volume: 7 Start page: 169
Publication: Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering

Abstract: Parallel molecular dynamics calculations of nuclear-stimulated desorption are carried out for a palladium crystal containing radioactive atoms. The characteristics of the desorption probability and their dependence on different interaction parameters are presented. The implications of the results to an experimental scenario which may enable better understanding and modelling of adsorbate-substrate interaction are discussed.

Title: Monitoring of freshness of milk by an electronic tongue on the basis of voltammetry
Author(s): F Winquist, C Krantz-Rülcker, P Wide and I Lundström
Publication date: December 1998 Volume: 9 Start page: 1937
Publication: Measurement Science and Technology

Abstract: We describe an electronic tongue which consists of a reference electrode, an auxiliary electrode and five wires of different metals (gold, iridium, palladium, platinum and rhodium) as working electrodes. The measurement principle is based on pulsed voltammetry, in which successive voltage pulses of gradually changing amplitudes are applied to the working electrodes connected in a standard three-electrode configuration. The five working electrodes were successively connected and corresponding current-response transients are recorded. The electronic tongue was used to follow the deterioration of the quality of milk due to microbial growth when milk is stored at room temperature. The data obtained were treated with principal component analysis and the deterioration process could clearly be followed in the diagrams. To make models for predictions, projections to latent structure and artificial neural networks were used. When they had been trained, both models could satisfactorily predict the course of bacterial growth in the milk samples.

Title: Micromachining compatible metal patterning technique using localized decomposition of an organometallic compound by laser irradiation
Author(s): Eiji Makino and Takayuki Shibata
Publication date: September 1998 Volume: 8 Start page: 177
Publication: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering

Abstract: Spin coated palladium acetate film was decomposed locally using argon ion laser irradiation and palladium thin film with a line pattern was formed. We studied the effects of the process parameters, such as laser power density and scan rate, on line pattern features and the basic characteristics of the formed palladium thin film. The film had a fine polycrystalline structure with a grain size of up to 100 nm, and high chemical purity, resulting in a low electrical resistivity of the order of cm. The formed line patterns had a smooth surface and flat features. Their thickness was 12% of that of the coated palladium acetate film. The width of the formed palladium line patterns was 100-200% of the spot size of the laser beam, depending on irradiation conditions, due to thermal conduction. This metal pattern deposition technique is not only very simple and flexible, but is also compatible with micromachining processes, since it is a maskless process and is easy to apply to three dimensional structures.

Title: Evidence for the double distribution of barrier heights in Schottky diodes from I - V - T measurements
Author(s): Subhash Chand and Jitendra Kumar
Publication date: August 1996 Volume: 11 Start page: 1203
Publication: Semiconductor Science and Technology

Abstract: The current - voltage (I - V) characteristics of palladium silicide-based Schottky diodes on n-type silicon have been measured over a wide temperature range (66 - 300 K). Their analysis on the basis of the thermionic emission - diffusion (TED) mechanism reveals an abnormal decrease of zero-bias barrier height and increase of ideality factor with decrease in temperature (T) and nonlinearity in the activation energy plot. Such behaviour is attributed to barrier inhomogeneities by assuming a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights at the silicide/silicon interface. Evidence is given for the existence of a double Gaussian distribution having mean barrier heights of 0.79 V and 0.64 V and standard deviations of 0.081 V and 0.057 V with ideality factors 1.064 and 1.363, and remain effective in the temperature range 134 - 300 K and 66 - 120 K respectively. Further, the effect of forward bias on the distribution parameters is discussed. A simple method, involving the use of a zero-bias barrier height versus inverse temperature plot, is suggested to deduce the presence of single/multiple distribution(s) of barrier heights and to determine the respective parameters.


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